Citations & Studies

Potential complications may include local or systemic infection, hematoma, extravasations, or other complications associated with percutaneous insertion of sterile devices.

  1. Vidacare internal data on file 2014.
  2. Paxton JH, Knuth TE, Klausner HA. Proximal humerus intraosseous infusion: a preferred emergency venous access. J Trauma. 2009;67(3):1-7.*
  3. Cooper BR, Mahoney PF, Hodgetts TJ, Mellor A. Intra-osseous access (EZ-IO®) for resuscitation: UK military combat experience. J R Army Med Corps. 2007;153(4):314-316.
  4. Dolister M, Miller S, Borron S, et al. Intraosseous vascular access is safe, effective and costs less than central venous catheters for patients in the hospital setting. J Vasc Access 2013;14(3):216-24. doi:10.5301/jva.5000130.*
  5. Philbeck TE, Miller LJ, Montez D, Puga T. Hurts so good; easing IO pain and pressure. JEMS 2010;35(9):58-69.*
  6. Vidacare Internal Studies (2013); data on file. Average time for medication infusion from humerus to the right atrium with EZ-IO® Device; individual results may vary.

* Research sponsored by Teleflex Incorporated and its affiliates, including Vidacare LLC.


While the articles support intraosseous vascular access indications, claims and applications of Arrow® EZ-IO® Intraosseous Vascular Access System, readers should consult a physician and product labeling for proper indications, contraindications, warnings and precautions for Arrow® EZ-IO® Intraosseous Vascular Access System prior to use.